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Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

March 10, 2009 12:42 PM EDT

Description

This plant has naturalized across the island of Puerto Rico, but botanists have told me they do not believe it to be native there. This observation was made on the farm of Sergio Tejedor and he told me these plants had been growing there as long as he could remember when his grandfather owned the farm. (NOTE: last photo of flower was taken from cultivated plant grown from this collection.)

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 21, 2020 08:58 AM EST

Description

This is the form collected by Ernst Ule in 1911 and described by Loesener as Costus gracilis, a synonym for Costus arabicus. It was found only in the area close to the river - Rio Acre.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 20, 2020 02:40 PM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 20, 2020 12:32 PM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule.

Across the Rio Acre in the Reserva Extravista Chico Mendes, we found this species to be very common.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 19, 2020 11:41 AM EST

Description

This is the "El Gato" form that I have seen in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and in Acre, Brazil. It is either an undescribed species, or possibly is the species described by Loesener as Costus validus. The inflorescences of this species in the Rio Branco area generally have an upright orientation, but in the Cachoeira area and in other countries where I have seen it, they generally are nodding or distinctly pendent.

Some plants in this same species have a waxy texture and dark purple undersides to the leaves - especially in young plants. I have seen this same thing in the Manu National Park in Peru.

This photo taken near the border with Bolivia along the Rio Xipamanú

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 05:38 PM EST

Description

This is the "El Gato" form that I have seen in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and in Acre, Brazil. It is either an undescribed species, or possibly is the species described by Loesener as Costus validus. The inflorescences of this species in the Rio Branco area generally have an upright orientation, but in the Cachoeira area and in other countries where I have seen it, they generally are nodding or distinctly pendent.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 05:12 PM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule. This plant found growing wild. It differs slightly from the cultivated plant found near here in another observation, as the upper leaf surface in that plant is glabrous. It is rare in the Cachoeira area.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 04:34 PM EST

Description

This is the "El Gato" form that I have seen in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and in Acre, Brazil. It is either an undescribed species, or possibly is the species described by Loesener as Costus validus. The inflorescences of this species in the Rio Branco area generally have an upright orientation, but in the Cachoeira area and in other countries where I have seen it, they generally are nodding or distinctly pendent. It is very common in the Cachoeira area.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 04:27 PM EST

Description

This is the "El Gato" form that I have seen in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and in Acre, Brazil. It is either an undescribed species, or possibly is the species described by Loesener as Costus validus. The inflorescences of this species in the Rio Branco area generally have an upright orientation, but in the Cachoeira area and in other countries where I have seen it, they generally are nodding or distinctly pendent.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 02:04 PM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule.

This plant was cultivated at this site, collected locally. A nearly identical plant was found growing wild nearby.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 18, 2020 12:53 PM EST

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 16, 2020 10:16 AM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 16, 2020 03:54 PM EST

Description

Species split from C. subsessilis. Was not in flower but easily recognize by shape of leaves and the root tubers.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 16, 2020 09:22 AM EST

Description

Typical form of C. scaber.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 16, 2020 08:35 AM EST

Description

This is possibly the species described by Loesener as Costus cylindricus var. acreanus, collected in this region in 1911 by Ernst Ule.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 16, 2020 08:28 AM EST

Description

Plant was not in flower but recognized by the appendaged bracts and identical form of other plants in the region seen in flower.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spiral Gingers Genus Costus

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 01:16 PM EST

Description

This one has almost a pure white flower with the green bracts - closer to Costus arabicus but I believe to be it to be a either C. acreanus or a hybrid with C. arabicus. No other characters were typical of C. arabicus.

Photos / Sounds

Square

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 01:02 PM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

Basal flowering with dark red bracts.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 12:46 PM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

Shorter plant, terminal flowering with green bracts.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 12:09 PM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

This one basal flowering with green bracts.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 11:59 AM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

This one basal flowering on leafless or nearly leafless stems.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 11:37 AM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

In this secondary forest area there were diverse forms of this species. This one was the tallest, a terminal flowering plant.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 11, 2020 11:35 AM EST

Description

Typical of the form found in this region.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 10, 2020 03:13 PM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

All along the trail in the Parque Chico Mendes, this species is very common in its various forms with varied colors of bracts and flowers, some of them basal flowering.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 10, 2020 12:45 PM EST

Description

Based on the branching habit and the cordate leaf base, I believe this belongs in Costus arabicus.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 10, 2020 10:48 AM EST

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 10, 2020 10:17 AM EST

Description

Plants were past flowering, but easily identified by the form of the bracts. As is usual, this species was found in large clumps of plants and scattered along the trail nearby. Here the plants have a silvery midstripe as I have seen in Mato Groso State.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 10, 2020 09:39 AM EST

Description

Costus "El Gato" form. Believed to either be a sp. nov. or to belong to the species Costus validus Loes. See description at https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38059834

This plant was different from others believed to be of this same species because it has sub-appendaged bracts. It had only a terminal inflorescence, oriented erect, and with dark red bracts.

UPDATE February 2020: In January 2020 I visited the southern part of the state of Acre in Brazil near the Rio Acre, the region of the type for the species Costus acreanus. I have also compared herbaria specimens from that region that were determined by Paul Maas to be the species he described as Costus acreanus. I found that the only plant matching his description and the herbaria specimens he determined as C. acreanus to be forms of the 'El Gato' plant that I had previously found in Colombia, Ecuador and southern Peru. It is by far the most common species in the region. Near Xapurí and points east into Peru, it usually has a pendent inflorescence bourne at the terminus of a leafy stem. In places near the city of Rio Branco and north to Porto Acre, most plants were erect instead of pendent, and it was more common to find them with basal inflorescences on a leafless or near leafless shoot.

I have thus concluded that this observation is an example of the species Costus acreanus (Loes) Maas.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 9, 2020 04:14 PM EST

Description

This plant of C. arabicus did NOT have the appendaged bracts as seen in other plants in the region, but it does have a bicarinate bracteole. Note also the cordate leaf base.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

selvadero

Date

January 9, 2020 01:12 PM EST

Description

Previously included in Chamaecostus subsessilis.

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