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What

Peninsular Cooter Pseudemys peninsularis

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 9, 2020

Description

NUMBER: 20200609
SPECIES: Peninsula Cooter, Pseudemys peninsularis (Carr, 1938)
ALSO CALLED: Pseudemys floridana peninsularis Carr, 1938. Unclear if this form represents a species or subspecies.
NUMBER; SIZES; WEIGHT; SEX: 1; straight carapace length 30.5 cm (12.0 in), curved 36.2 cm (14.25 in), width straight 22.2 cm (8.75 in), curved 28.0 cm (11.0 in); weigh 3.45 kg (7.6 lbs); size and anterior nail length suggests female. A relatively large old female.
DISTINCTIONS: Plain, yellow plastron (belly; Fig. D) with large black spots on edges (sides, Fig. E); numerous yellow stripes on carapace (top), legs, head, and tail (Figs. A,B,E).
LOCALITY: Lely Palms Road and St. Andrews Blvd near Fishtail Lake, Naples, Florida 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6′22.7″ N, 81°42′54.4″ W (26.1063, -81.7151)
DATE, TIME: 9 June 2020, 4:40 pm
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: As the names suggest, endemic (only occurs) to the peninsula of Florida
COLLECTION/EXAM: Turtle was crossing the highway in a rainstorm. EHW ran out into traffic on 4-lane to pick up the animal (Fig. F). Cars were trying to avoid the turtle and almost causing accidents. Photographed, measured, weighed, and returned across the road toward the local lake (26.1061, -81.7154). Soon she walked toward the lake.
PHOTOGRAPHS: by LBW
USES: Aquarium trade, food, export
SOURCES: aquaculture, wild harvest
CONSERVATION STATUS:
SIMILAR SPECIES: The closely related and sympatric (occur together) Florida Red-bellied Cooter, Pseudemys nelsoni Carr, 1938, often basks with Peninsula Cooter. It differs by having a distinctive red-tinged belly (plastron) and red stripes on top (carapace); and 2 cusps (like teeth) on upper bill with notch inbetween. Florida, extreme SE Georgia, introduced Texas. IUCN Threatened, Georgia Imperiled.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. Rescue of a large Peninsula Cooter, Pseudemys peninsularis Carr, 1938, on St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, Florida. iNaturalist #51411988, Research Quality Observation, 29 June (online) [511]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #511.

Photos / Sounds

What

Moses-in-the-Cradle Tradescantia spathacea

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 17, 2020

Description

SPECIES: Boat-lily, Tradescantia spathacea Swartz, 1788[1]
OTHER NAMES: Oyster-plant,[2] Moses-in-the-cradle
DESCRIPTION: Herb, erect or ascending; stems unbranched, short; thick leaves arranged spirally, blades purple underneath (abaxially) and green above (adaxially), sword or strap shaped, to 15-30 cm (6-12 in), leathery, succulent, glabrous (smooth, bare). Plant 30-46 cm (12-18 in) high, 30-61 cm (12-24 in) wide. Cultivars of various colors and leaf patterns.
LOCALITY: weeds in forest margin just east of dam on east side of Fishtail Lake, Lely Palms, Naples, FL 34113
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’22.0” N, 81°42’47.2” W (26.1061, -81.7131)
DATE, TIME: 17 June 2020, 2 pm EDST
COLLECTION: 2 plants (Figs. A,B) eradicated (dug up) and replanted among domestic Boat-lilies for comparison.
DISTRIBUTION: Native to southern Mexico, Central America, and West Indies. Introduced and naturalized in south Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Puerto Rico, and tropical/subtropical areas worldwide.
INVASIVE SPECIES: Global Invasive Species Database (IUCN); Florida Invasive Species Category II (Invasive but not modifying environment). Potential as dense ground cover to prevent other plants from spouting. Not confirmed in the wild.
OUR OBSERVATIONS: Rarely seen in weeds of forest margins. Does not appear very aggressive or successful. A common bedding plant in local gardens.
DANGER: Leaves slightly poisonous when ingested. Sap irritating to some peoples’ skin. Rather toxic to dogs. They may scratch until they bleed and require veterinary treatment.
USES: Popular bedding and potted plant. Component of cactus, succulent, and rock gardens. Edible tuber.[2] Herbal medicines in China and the Philippines, although of New World origin.
PHOTOGRAPHS: by EHW
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,5,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Eradicating Boat-lily, Tradescantia spathacea Swartz, 1788, from the wild in Lely Palms, Florida. iNaturalist #51183918, Research Quality Observations, 24 June (online) [508]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #508.
[2]Said to taste like oysters.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20090821
SPECIES: Grouper Isopod,[1] Anilocra brillae Welicky et al., 2017[2]
NUMBER, DEVELOPMENT, SEX: 1, adult, female
LOCATION: On cheek under eye, which is the normal position.
LOCALITY: Copacabana Diving, Havana, Cuba
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: somewhere around 23°9’1.9” N, 82°24’2.2” W (23.1533, -82.4006)
DATE: 21 August 2009
HOST: Coney, Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus, 1758)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Wolfram Sander, Copacabana Diving, Havana, Cuba
IMPORTANCE: New Country Record. Ortiz et al. (2003) actually reported this isopod from Cuba first, but as Anilocra haemuli Williams and Williams, 1981, which was then the correct name. We also made corrections to that paper (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020a).
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Ortiz, M., R. Lalana, and E. Suarez. 2003. New fish parasite copepod and isopod crustaceans (Crustacea), from the Cuban Archipelago, with the description of a new species of copepod. Avicennia 16: 78-82. https://archive.org/details/biostor-135587/page/n3/mode/2up
<>Welicky, R. L., K. A. Hadfield, P. C. Sikkel, and N. J. Smit. 2017. Molecular assessment of three species of Anilocra (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) ectoparasites from Caribbean coral reef fishes, with the description of Anilocra brillae sp. n. ZooKeys 663: 21 pp.
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41] also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241572064_Nine_new_species_of_Anilocra_Crustacea_Isopoda_Cymothoidae_external_parasites_of_West_Indian_coral_reef_fishes
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Suggestions for “New fish parasite copepod and isopod crustaceans (Crustacea), from the Cuban Archipelago, with the description of a new species of copepod. Avicennia 16: 78-82.” Avicennia https://archive.org/details/biostor-135587/page/n3/mode/2up [507]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. A New Country Record for the Grouper Isopod,[1] Anilocra brillae Welicky et al., 2017, in Cuba. iNaturalist #48507005, Research Quality Observation, 4 June (online) [506][2]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #506.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

August 11, 2014

Description

NUMBER: 20140811
SPECIES: Surgeonfish Isopod, Anilocra acanthuri Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981.[1]
IDENTIFICATION: We described it (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981). Size, shape, position on host, host specific to surgeon fishes.
LOCATION: Under pelvic fin is the normal attachment position for the female. This one was on the left side.
LOCALITY: near Cigar Rock, on Big Coral Knoll(?), Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. South of Tower 17(?). None of these appear to be map localities.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: possibly somewhere around 26°6’7.6” N, 80°5’56.4” W (26.1021, -80.0990)
DATE: 11 August 2014
HOST: Doctorfish, Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch, 1787)
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: We (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981) reported it from Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, Bahamas, and the Florida Keys on the Doctorfish.
PHOTOGRAPH: by Michael Kovach, Cordova Diving (out of business). This is a one-time, non-profit, scientific use for identification.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41] also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241572064_Nine_new_species_of_Anilocra_Crustacea_Isopoda_Cymothoidae_external_parasites_of_West_Indian_coral_reef_fishes
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Surgeonfish Isopods, Anilocra acanthuri Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, New State Records for Florida outside the Florida Keys. iNaturalist #48083390, Research Quality Observation, 31 May (online) [502]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Surgeonfish Isopod, Anilocra acanthuri Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, another record for Florida outside the Florida Keys. iNaturalist #48302605, Research Quality Observation, 2 June (online) [504]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #504.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 1, 2020 11:32 PM ADT

Description

SPECIES: Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910
DISTINCTIONS: Elongate, pointed “nose.” Pereon (thorax) elongated rectangle becoming wider posteriorly. Pleon (abdomen) abruptly narrower than pereon.
LOCALITY: St. James River at Jacksonville, Florida
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 30°19’12.0” N, 81°39’0.0” W (30.32, -81.65)
HOST: Longnose Gar, Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaus, 1758)
LOCATION: Body and fins
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: Coastal areas of every state Georgia to Texas, and New York. Williams and Bunkley-Williams (1999) suggested its range probably extends into Gulf coastal Mexico.
FLORIDA RECORDS: Alligator Harbor, lower Ochlockonee River, and Tampa Bay, Florida. All Gulf of Mexico localities (Bowman et al., 1977).
PHOTOGRAPHS: by Poly V. Weldon, A. Close up of inside of left pelvic fin with Gar Isopod attached. B. Gar Isopod attached inside left pelvic fin of a Longnose Gar
KNOWN HOSTS: Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula Lacepede, 1803; Chain Pickerel, Esox niger Lesueur, 1818; King Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829)(Prey-Predator Transfer; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1994, 1996); Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, 1864; Silver Perch, Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepede, 1802); Spot, Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepede, 1802; Longnose Gar (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1999).
DAMAGE: Overstreet and Hawkins (2017) question whether it is attracted to sick and injured gar or causes the injuries. Overstreet (1978) showed similar damage previously. Since it occurs on many apparently healthy fishes, we would guess it causes these wounds.
IMPORTANCE: There are very few reports of these isopods in the literature. This is the First Report of the Gar Isopod on the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7], Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8] , Poly V. Weldon, Veterinary Student, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, pweldon@ufl.edu
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bowman, T. E., S. A. Grabe, and J. H. Hecht. 1977. Chesapeake Science 18: 390-393.
<>Overstreet, R. M. 1978. Marine maladies? Worms, germs, and other symbionts from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium, MASGP-78-021. 140 pp.
<>Overstreet, R. M., and W. E. Hawkins. 2017. Diseases and mortalities of fishes and other animals in the Gulf of Mexico. Pages 1589-1738, In: C. Ward (Ed.) Habitats and biota of the Gulf of Mexico: Before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Springer, New York, NY. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-3456-0_6
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1994. Four cases of unusual crustacean-fish associations and comments on parasitic processes. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6: 202-208. Google Scholar [156]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1996. Parasites of offshore, big game sport fishes of Puerto Rico and the western North Atlantic. Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 384 pp. (book). [also Caribbean Journal of Science Special Publication 9: www.caribjsci.org/publications.html; http://www.uprm.edu/biology/cjs/biggamefish.pdf] Google Scholar [190]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1999. Order Isopoda. Pages 310, 325-331, 353, 359-360, 375, 377, 379, 383-385, 396, 402, 404-408 In: G. L. Hoffman (Ed.) Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA, 539 pp. [244]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., P. V. Weldon, and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. First Atlantic coast of Florida Record for the Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910. iNaturalist #48199605, Research Quality Observations, 1 June (online) [501]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #501.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 31, 2020 11:32 PM ADT

Description

SPECIES: Surgeonfish Isopod,[1] Anilocra acanthuri Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981.[2]
IDENTIFICATION: We described it (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981). Size, shape, position on host, host specific to surgeon fishes.
LOCATION: Under pelvic fin is the normal attachment position for the female. This one was on the left side.
LOCALITY: Dearfield Beach Pier, 200 NE 21st Avenue, Dearfield Beach, Florida 33441
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 26°18’59.04” N, 80°4’22.08” W (26.3164, -80.0728)
HOST: Doctorfish, Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch, 1787), was not identified on the webpage (DFB, 2020). The spine on the caudal peduncle, bars on the body, shape, and color are diagnostic.
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: We (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981) reported it from Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, Bahamas, and the Florida Keys on the Doctorfish.
PHOTOGRAPH: The photographer was not identified. No copywrite protection was stated. This is a one-time, non-profit, scientific use for identification.
SIMILAR RECORDS: (1) iNaturalist #1777, observed 2 July 2007, submitted 28 February 2009, also Dearfield Beach, 26.3273, -80.0718, photo shows female under right pelvic fin. EHW identified. (2) U. S. National Museum Invertebrate Collection, USNM 1198798, collected by Dr. Raymond E. Waldner, identified by us for USNM, 0.4 km north of Hilton Inn on Singer Island, Palm Beach County, 50 m offshore, 26°47’36.2” N, 80°1’53.0” W (26.7934, -80.0314)
IMPORTANCE: Identification of the isopods and New Records for Florida outside of the Florida Keys.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>DFB. 2020. Isopod. Dearfield Beach Fish Guide
http://deerfield-beach.com/ImageRepository/Document?documentId=12984
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41] also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241572064_Nine_new_species_of_Anilocra_Crustacea_Isopoda_Cymothoidae_external_parasites_of_West_Indian_coral_reef_fishes
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. Surgenfish Isopods, Anilocra acanthuri Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, New State Records for Florida outside the Florida Keys. iNaturalist #48083390, Research Quality Observation, 31 May (online) [502]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #502.

Photos / Sounds

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Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 18, 2020 07:17 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200518[1]
SPECIES: Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981[2]
SPECIMEN NUMBER; SEX & DEVELOPMENT: 3; (foreground fish)1 adult female, 1 micromale (juvenile) (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019); (background fish) 1 adult female
DISTINCTIONS: Only occurs on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in The West Indies and south Florida (USA) (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981).
DATE, TIME:
LOCALITY: Roatán Divers, West End (746.44 mi), Islas De La Bahia, Roatán, Honduras 34101
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 16°18’0.0” N, 86°36’36.0” W (16.30, -86.61)
DIVE, PHOTO DEPTHS: unknown
LOCATION: Females only on top of head; sometimes micromales (juveniles) under or beside females (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019)
HOST: Blackbar Soldierfish
PHOTOGRAPH: Irma Korb. Marked advertisement/preview copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification.
DISTRIBUTION: We described this isopod from Puerto Rico and a few adjacent areas. Since then, we have seen it elsewhere. However, we cannot search everywhere. Reports and photographs from others are very useful in determining the exact geographic range of this isopod and its significance.
PARALELL EVOLUTION?: Similar Anilocra spp. occur on the tops of the heads of Soldierfishes, Myripristis spp., in the IndoPacific. These occurrences are very interesting and should be compared.
IMPORTANCE: New Country Record (Honduras).
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Country Record for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in Honduras. iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observations, 18 May (online) [500][2]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Country Record for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in the Cayman Islands. iNaturalist #46253997, Research Quality Observations, 17 May (online) [499]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Island Record (Bimini) for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829. iNaturalist #46253997, Research Quality Observations, 17 May (online) [498]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph was taken unknown. Date posted to iNaturalist.
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #500.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20150729
SPECIES: Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981[1]
SPECIMEN NUMBER; SEX & DEVELOPMENT: 5; 1adult female, 4 micromales (juveniles) at 3 stages of development, which suggests 3 sources (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019)
DISTINCTIONS: Only occurs on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in The West Indies and south Florida (USA) (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981).
DATE, TIME: 29 June 2015
LOCALITY: Bloody Bay Wall, Little Cayman, Cayman Islands
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 19°40’48.0” N, 80°5’24.0” W (19.68, -80.09)
DIVE, PHOTO DEPTHS: unknown
LOCATION: Females only on top of head; sometimes micromales (juveniles) under or beside females (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019)
HOST: Blackbar Soldierfish
PHOTOGRAPH: Underwater Imaging, Alamy Stock Photos, Figure A. FOGFWF, FIGURE B. FOGG9B. Marked advertisement/preview copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification.
DISTRIBUTION: We described this isopod from Puerto Rico and a few adjacent areas. Since then, we have seen it elsewhere. However, we cannot search everywhere. Reports and photographs from others are very useful in determining the exact geographic range of this isopod and its significance.
PARALELL EVOLUTION?: Similar Anilocra spp. occur on the tops of the heads of Soldierfishes, Myripristis spp., in the IndoPacific. These occurrences are very interesting and should be compared.
IMPORTANCE: New Country Record (Cayman Islands) and New Island Record (Little Cayman).
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Country Record for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in the Cayman Islands. iNaturalist #46323685, Research Quality Observations, 17 May (online) [499][1]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Island Record (Bimini) for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829. iNaturalist #46253997, Research Quality Observations, 17 May (online) [498]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #499.

Photos / Sounds

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Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 17, 2020 12:36 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200517[1]
SPECIES: Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981[2]
SPECIMEN NUMBER, SEX, DEVELOPMENT: 1, female, adult
DISTINCTIONS: Only occurs on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829, in The West Indies and south Florida (USA) (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981).
DATE, TIME: 17 May 2020[1]
LOCALITY: Spotted Sand Reef near Bimini in the northern Bahamas
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 25°43’48.0” N, 79°18’0.0” W (25.73, -79.30)
DIVE, PHOTO DEPTHS: unknown
LOCATION: Females only on top of head; sometimes micromales (juveniles) under or beside females (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981; Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019)
HOST: Blackbar Soldierfish
PHOTOGRAPH: Herb Segars, FIS-29-3689, Herb Segars Photography, goto Snapshot.com. Marked advertisement/preview copy. Not a complementary copy. One time use for scientific identification.
DISTRIBUTION: We described this isopod from Puerto Rico and a few adjacent areas. Since then, we have seen it elsewhere. However, we cannot search everywhere. Reports and photographs from others are very useful in determining the exact geographic range of this isopod and its significance.
PARALELL EVOLUTION?: Similar Anilocra spp. occur on the tops of the heads of Soldierfishes, Myripristis spp., in the IndoPacific. These occurrences are very interesting and should be compared.
IMPORTANCE: New Island Record
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. New Island Record (Bimini) for the Blackbar Soldierfish Isopod, Anilocra myripristis Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, on the Blackbar Soldierfish, Mypristis jacobus Cuvier, 1829. iNaturalist #46253997, Research Quality Observations, 17 May (online) [498][2]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken unknown. Date posted to iNaturalist 17 May 2020.
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #498.

Photos / Sounds

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Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

December 20, 2014

Description

NUMBER: 20141220
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 1, female under (Fig. A).
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This under arrangement suggests this is either the preferred attachment position, or more likely, that there is no preference difference between under and over (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020a-l).
DATE: 20 December 2014
LOCALITY: House Reef, Kri Eco Resort, Jl. Gunung Tidar No. 1 Kampung Baru, Yenbuba, Sorong, Kabupaten Raja Ampat, Papua Bar., Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 0°33’23.4” S, 130°40’41.5” E (-0.5565, 130.6782)
HOST: Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775)
CLEANER FISH: Bluestreak Cleanerfish, Labroides diminatus (Valenciennes, 1839), by the tail of the host fish. Cleanerfish cannot remove adult fish isopods.
PHOTOGRAPH: by Rokus Groeneveld, Marked preview/advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
COMMENTS: Raja Ampat is reputed to be the best diving site in the world.
IMPORTANCE: New Island Record and cleaner fish comments
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Island Record and cleanerfish comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #46180630, Research Quality Observations, 16 May (online) [497][1]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Host Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #46045471, Research Quality Observations, 15 May (online) [496]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45935010, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [495]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #45921275, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45905797, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020j. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020k. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020l. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #496.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

March 24, 2020 11:25 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200324
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 2 females over-under (Fig. A)
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DATE: 24 March 2020
LOCALITY: Keruo Channel dive site, Keruo Island, near Penemu Island, Raja Ampat (4 kings), West Papua, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 0°33’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-0.56, 130.29)
HOST: Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Colin Marshall, PX8HA8, Alamy Stock Photo, Marked preview/advertisement copies. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
DATA: iNaturalist #46046046
IMPORTANCE: none
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #46045471, Research Quality Observations, 15 May (online) [496]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45935010, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [495]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #45921275, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45905797, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020j. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020k. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The text has not been numbered and is not in our reprint collection. Our reprint #496 was from the same host and locality.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

March 20, 2020 11:15 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200320
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 7, 2 females over-under; 5 juveniles (Fig. A).
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This over-under arrangement differs by having 5 juvenile isopods in front of the lower female (Fig. A).
DATE: 20 March 2020
LOCALITY: Keruo Channel dive site, Keruo Island, near Penemu Island, Raja Ampat (4 kings), West Papua, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 0°33’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-0.56, 130.29)
HOST: Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775)
LIFE CYCLE: The juveniles could be micromales attracted to a receptive female. They are in 2 stages of development, which means they are from 2 different sources.
PHOTOGRAPH: by Colin Marshall, zw1-2691201, AGE PHOTOSTOCK, Marked preview/advertisement copies. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Host Record and life cycle comments
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Topsail Chub, Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #46045471, Research Quality Observations, 15 May (online) [496][1]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45935010, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [495]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #45921275, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45905797, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020j. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #496.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 14, 2020 09:39 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20141104
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 3, 2 females over-under; 1 developing female on side of head.
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This attachment is different by having a developing female isopod above the over-under arrangement.
DATE: 4 November 2014[1]
LOCALITY: Wakatobi Archipelago, Tukangbesi Islands, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)???
INDENTIFICATIONS: isopod and host
HOST: Obicular Batfish, Platax obicularis (Forsskål, 1775).
PHOTOGRAPH: by Véronique Ressouches, doris.ffessm.fr, plataxLet_anilocra-vr1_image1200, Marked preview/advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
LIFE CYCLE: Below the developing female is above a scar made by an adult female. This suggests that this immature form is replacing a lost adult specimen. The same may be said about the upper female. These also suggest that lost isopods are rather quickly replaced.
IMPORTANCE: New Location Record and life cycle comments
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45935010, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [495]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #45921275, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45905797, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken is unknown, posted on iNature 14 May 2020
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #495.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 14, 2020 06:59 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200514
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 3, 2 females over-under; 1 female on upper opposite side
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This attachment is different by having a single female isopod under the eye.
DATE: 14 May 2020[1]
LOCALITY: Wakatobi Archipelago, Tukangbesi Islands, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)???
HOST: Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Dan Exton, #8932261, Marked preview/advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Location Record
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #45921275, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken is unknown, posted on iNature 14 May 2020
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #494.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 14, 2020 04:21 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200514[1]
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 3, 2 females over-under; 1 female on upper opposite side
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This attachment is different by having the 3rd female isopod.
DATE: 14 May 2020[1]
LOCALITY: Wakatobi Archipelago, Tukangbesi Islands, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Obicular Batfish, Platax obcularis (Forsskål, 1775)
HOST DISTICTIONS: Body gold, silver, or brown; broadly diffuse, or no, face stripes; 1st stripe often covering front of face; pectoral fins placed in space between face stripes, other batfishes have pelvic fins at base of second stripe
LIFE CYCLE: We believe the algae growing on the upper right female indicates she is old and has ceased molting. This would suggest that she is (1) older than the others and infected the host before the other females and not simultaneously, (2) this, the female on the upper opposite, and the single upper female in Williams and Bunkley-Williams (2020c)(iNaturalist #45700521) suggest that the upper position is preferred. However, a single lower female occurred in Williams and Bunkley-Williams (2020b).
IDENTIFICATION: of fish host and isopod
PHOTOGRAPH: by D. Stephens, Indonesia83, Travel-Images.com, Marked preview/advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Location Record and Life Cycle information
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Location Record and life cycle comments for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45905797, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [493]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Gray Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observations, 14 May (online) [494]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 13 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020h. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020i. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken is unknown, posted on iNature 13 May 2020
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #493.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20081023[1]
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 3, 2 females over-under; 1 developing male/female
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This attachment pattern is different by having the developing isopod.
DATE: 23 October 2008[1]
LOCALITY: Wakatobi, Onemobaa Island, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853
HOST DISTICTIONS: Body gold, silver, or brown; broadly diffuse, or no, face stripes; 1st stripe often covering front of face; pectoral fins placed in space between face stripes, other batfishes have pelvic fins at base of second stripe
IDENTIFICATION: of fish host and isopod
PHOTOGRAPH: by Ross Gudgeon, #35430, Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Location Record
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Location Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45870230, Research Quality Observations, 13 May (online) [492]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020g. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken is unknown, posted online 23 October 2008
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #492.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 12, 2020 12:06 PM ADT

Description

NUMBER: 20200512[1]
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 1, female
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
LOCATION: This attachment is different by lacking the “under” part of the usual over-under configuration.
DATE: 12 May 2020[1]
LOCALITY: Wakatobi, Onemobaa Island, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Gold Batfish,[3] Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853
HOST DISTICTIONS: Body gold, silver, or brown; broadly diffuse, or no, face stripes; 1st stripe often covering front of face; pectoral fins placed in space between face stripes, other batfishes have pelvic fins at base of second stripe
IDENTIFICATION: of fish host and isopod
PHOTOGRAPH: by Alan James, #scs-26201003AJ, AGE Fotostock, www.agephotostock.com, Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Host and Location Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[4,5,7,8] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[4,6,7,9]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [4]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [5]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [6]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [7]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [8]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [9]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Gold Batfish, Platax boersii Bleeker, 1853. iNaturalist #45700521, Research Quality Observations, 12 May (online) [491]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020f. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Date photograph taken is unknown, reported 12 May 2020
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #491.
[3]Suggested new common name

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 11, 2020 08:06 PM ADT

Description

SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 2, female
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DIVE: night
LOCATION: Beside the normal above-and-below pair, a developing female on the side of the head (Fig. A)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Pacific Stock, DISSOLVE #1234_2_045-1200. Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
LOCALITY: Wakatobi, Celebes, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775)
IMPORTANCE: New Host and New Location Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bruce, N. L. and E. B. Harrison-Nelson. 1988. New records of fish parasitic marine isopod crustaceans (Cymothoidae, subfamily Anilocrinae) from the Indo-West Pacific. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 101: 585-602. https://decapoda.nhm.org/pdfs/2608/2608.pdf
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host and Location Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Orbicular Batfish, Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45641886, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [490]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020e. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #490.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 10, 2009

Description

NUMBER: 20090610
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 2, female
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DATE: 10 June 2009
PHOTOGRAPH: by WaterFrame_fba, Alamy BCHEE1, www.alamy.com. Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. One time use for scientific identification only.
LOCALITY: Wakatobi, Celebes, Indonesia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775)
IMPORTANCE: New Host and New Country Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bruce, N. L. and E. B. Harrison-Nelson. 1988. New records of fish parasitic marine isopod crustaceans (Cymothoidae, subfamily Anilocrinae) from the Indo-West Pacific. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 101: 585-602. https://decapoda.nhm.org/pdfs/2608/2608.pdf
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host Record for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on Longfin Batfish, Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775). iNaturalist #45596142, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [489]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New Country and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Indonesia. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020d. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #489.

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20051213
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
SPECIMENS, NUMBER, SEX: 2, female
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DATE: 13 December 2005
LOCALITY: Wakatobi Dive Resort, Sulawesi, Indonesia (Indian Ocean, Banda Sea)
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 5°46’12.0” S, 123°53’24.0” E (-5.77, 123.89)
HOST: Dusky Batfish, Platax pinnatus (Linnaeus, 1758). We have heard of occurrences of apparently this isopod on this host previously but have never had a photograph adequate for an identification previously.
PHOTOGRAPH: by Reinhard Dirscherl, ullstein collection, Getty Images. Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. Gettyimages #5154955, 549032659. One time use for scientific identification only.
ATTACHMENT LOCATION: The unusual Over-Under Attachment by this isopod seems to be the most common and most reported configuration. This is not a simple female-male pair, as both isopods are females. This may be an indication that our Micromale Life Cycle (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019) is occurring.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Bruce and Harrison-Nelson (1988) found the Sweetlips Isopod was very similar to our Surgeonfish Isopod,[2] Anilocra prionuri Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1986. It differs by having a bulbous rather than triangular-digitiform rostral fold, and a distinctly shorter pleotelson well exceeded by the uropod rami (can be judged in Fig. A).
IMPORTANCE: New Country and New Host Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bruce, N. L. and E. B. Harrison-Nelson. 1988. New records of fish parasitic marine isopod crustaceans (Cymothoidae, subfamily Anilocrinae) from the Indo-West Pacific. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 101: 585-602. https://decapoda.nhm.org/pdfs/2608/2608.pdf
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Country Record and Host Records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #45595377, Research Quality Observations, 11 May (online) [488]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #488.
[2]Suggested New Common Name

Photos / Sounds

Copyright infringement square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

May 10, 2020 11:58 AM ADT

Description

SPECIES: Grouper Isopod,[1] Anilocra brillae Welicky et al., 2017[2]
OTHER NAMES: Bunkley-Williams and Williams (1881) left this isopod combined with Anilocra haemuli Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, because their morphologies were so similar (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981). After collecting around the Caribbean, they decided A. haemuli, as they described it, was a complex of 3 species based on their distributions. After that, they referred to this species as Anilocra sp.
NUMBER, SEX: 2; female on cheek, developing female beside dorsal fin
DISTINCTIONS: Only attaches to groupers in the Caribbean.
LOCALITY: North coast of Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: somewhere around 21°48’0.0” N, -72°12’36.0” W (21.80, -72.21)
LOCATIONS: Right cheek and right side of dorsal fin. We have observed and collected thousands of specimens of this isopod but have never seen it attach beside the dorsal fin. Rarely we have seen an isopod on both cheeks and once on top of the head. These curious attachments may tell us something about how attachment positions are chosen by this and other species of fish isopods. We just described a similar attachment site for Anilocra longicauda (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020b).
HOST: Coney, Cephalopholis filva (Linnaeus, 1758)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Gerald Soury. Marked advertisement copy. Not a complimentary copy. Gettyimages #888991640. One time use for scientific identification only.
IMPORTANCE: New Host, New Country, and New Location Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bunkley-Williams, L. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005-1047. Google Scholar [41]
<>Welicky, R. L., K. A. Hadfield, P. C. Sikkel, N. J. Smit. 2017. Molecular assessment of three species of Anilocra (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) ectoparasites from Caribbean coral reef fishes. ZooKeys 663: 21-43. https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=11415
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. New Host, New Country, New Location Records for the Grouper Isopod, Anilocra brillae Welicky et al., 2017, on the Coney, Cephalopholis filva (Linnaeus, 1758), in Turks and Caicos. iNaturalist #45489525, Research Quality Observation, 9 May (online) [487].
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 9 May (online) [486]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested new common name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #487.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

April 30, 2020 07:00 PM UTC

Description

NUMBER: 20200430
SPECIES: Banded-tail Deerfly,[1] Chrysops pudicus Osten Sacken, 1875[2]
OTHER NAMES: Shoreline Horse Fly
DISTINCTIONS: Medium-sized (6-8 mm TL) yellowish-orange deer fly with black markings. Similar in size to the common house fly. Eyes black (usually with yellow and/or green). Thorax with alternating broad and narrow black stripes. Inverted V-shaped black mark on tergite 2 (abdominal segment) separate from black bands on abdomen. Top edge of wings black, clear triangular portion of outer wing (hyaline triangle) much wider at base than high, extending up near the second-to-top vein (1st longitudinal); short 5pr vein marked with black (Thomas and Marshall, 2009).
LOCALITY: St. Andrews Blvd at sidewalk between Villa 920 and 922.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°6’25.6” N, 81°42’55.8” W (26.1071, -81.7155)
DATE, TIME: 30 April 2020, ~7 pm
COLLECTION: Landed under EHW’s left jaw and he swatted it before being slashed.
ADULT SEASON IN FLORIDA: Late May through September. Our record is a bit early. The weather had been unseasonably warm with daily record highs (Global Warming?).
KNOWN DISTRIBUTION: New York to Florida and west to Oklahoma; and within Florida 5 counties in the northern half of the state (Jones and Anthony, 1964). From 10 counties around the state except in southwest Florida (Fairchild, 1978). Nalen et al. (2015) strangely only notes Osten Sacken’s (1876) record from Ft. Capron,[3] Florida. Nalen et al. (2015) noted tabanids in general, and the Banded Dearfly in particular, had mostly been collected in north and central Florida and records from south Florida would be very useful.
SIMILAR SPECIES: The Dixie Deerfly, Chrysops dixianus Pechuman, 1974, is so similar to the Banded Dearfly that they have been confused in some museum collections (Pechuman, 1974). The wing patterns of these two are very similar. Both species occur in Florida. The Dixie Deerfly differs by having a brown thorax, pale-tipped scutum (plate behind thorax), broader apical spot (dark tip of wing), hyaline triangle peak not reaching 2nd longitudinal vein, yellow frontal callas (above antennae on head), no distinct dark spot on abdomen under the scutellum, and pale median markings on 2nd and 3rd abdominal tergites (segments) broader and less distinct (Pechuman, 1974).
DAMAGE: Their mouthparts are like slashing scissors and cause a painful, bleeding wound. They use an anticoagulant. Only females attack. They are pest of livestock and wildlife.
DISEASE: They can transmit a rare bacterial disease known as Rabbit Fever (Tularemia) to humans. The symptoms include skin ulcers, fever, and headache. Treatable with antibiotics, can be fatal. Also transmit some livestock diseases.
IMPORTANCE: New Locality for southwest Florida, Size, and Season Records
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[4,5,17,8] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[4,6,7,9]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [4]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [5]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [6]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [7]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [8]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [9]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Bargren, W. C. 1961. An annotated list of the horse flies of Florida and an illustrated key to the genera (Diptera: Tabanidae). Florida Entomologist 44: 69-84.
<> Fairchild, G. B. 1937. A preliminary list of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of Florida. Florida Entomologist 19: 58-63. https://journals.flvc.org/flaent/article/view/55128/52807
<> Fairchild, G. B. 1978. New and little known Florida Tabanidae. Florida Entomologist 61: 121-138. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3494227?read-now=1&refreqid=excelsior%3Aaaadb8fa66f23246b5a25ed0b778e97b&seq=10#page_scan_tab_contents
<>Jones, C. M. and D. W. Anthony. 1964. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Florida. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1295: 85 https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XcEXAAAAYAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA2&dq=Chrysops+pikei+diptera&ots=XPIxQ4UzmM&sig=opR2_s8PL2sMqeR6Q6ykNw9cnQw#v=onepage&q=Chrysops%20pikei&f=falsepp.https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=XcEXAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA8
<>Nalen, C. M. Z., D. L. Kline1, B. D. Sutton, G. Müller, and J. E. Cilek. 2015. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida. Florida Entomologist 98: 479-488. 024.098.0214-6.pdf
<> Osten Sacken, C. R. 1876. Additions to Part I of the Prodrome of the Tabanidae of the United States. Boston Journal of Natural History 2: 474-475. https://books.google.com/books?id=y94-AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA474&lpg=PA474&dq=Chrysops+pudicus+florida&source=bl&ots=xo2lHykc1U&sig=ACfU3U1B0J5tTqpdEtPu9Z7rIPGgIYBrqA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjFue3PoKPpAhWidN8KHUGNCEYQ6AEwBnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=capron&f=false
<>Pechuman, L. L. 1974. Two new Tabanidae from the southeastern United States (Diptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 82: 183–188. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25008925?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
<> Squitier, J. M. 2017. common name: deer flies, yellow flies and horse flies scientific name: Chrysops, Diachlorus, and Tabanus spp. (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae). Featured Creatures, University of Florida EENY-28: http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/livestock/deer_fly.htm
<>Thomas, A. W. and S. A. Marshall. 2009. Tabanidae of Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains 1: a photographic key to the species of Chrysopsinae and Pangoniinae (Diptera: Tabanidae).
Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification https://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/tm_08/tm_08.pdf
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. New Locality Record for southwest Florida, Size Record of 9 mm, and Seasonal Record of late April, for the Banded-tail Deerfly, Chrysops pudicus Osten Sacken, 1875. iNaturalist #45375192, Research Quality Observation, 8 May (online) [485][2]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #485.
[3]1850-1858, now in Port St. Lucie (1961-pres.), Florida.

Photos / Sounds

Square

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

August 20, 2008 12:56 PM UTC

Description

NUMBER: 20080820
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[1]
DISTINCTIONS: Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson; overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DATE, TIME: 20 August 2008, 12:54-1:40 pm (dive)
LOCALITY: 31 km SSE of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Lighthouse Bommie, Ribbon #10 Reef, Lizard QLD 4892, Australia
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 14°48’36.0” S, 145°42’0.0” E (-14.81, 145.70)
DIVE DEPTHS: 23.2 m maximum, 15.1 m average, fish at 20.2 m
LOCATION: We have seen this isopod attach above and below the eye. Bruce (1987) reported an observation of it on the caudal peduncle. In Figure A, isopods are (1) beside the dorsal fin, (2) bottom of the caudal fin, and (3) on top of the pelvic fin, are new attachment locations.
HOST: Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
PHOTOGRAPH: by Andrew Trever-Jones. Used with the permission of the photographer (4 May 2020).
IMPORTANCE: New Attachment Locations
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[7,8,10,11] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[7,9,10,12]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [7]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [8]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [9]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [10]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [11]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [12]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Anonymous. 2017. Spotted Sweetlips with parasite detail. Black Fin Grouper©. Photograph. https://www.flickr.com/photos/155839952@N07/40059368655
<>Bruce, N. L., 1987. Australian Pleopodias Richardson, 1910, and Anilocra Leach, 1818 (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes. Records of the Australian Museum 39: 85–130. https://media.australianmuseum.net.au/media/Uploads/Journals/17673/166_complete.pdf
<>Dyer, W. G., E. H. Williams, Jr., and L. B. Williams. 1988. Pseudopecoelus sesokoensis sp. n. (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) from the intestine of Plectorhynchus picus (Valenciennes) of Okinawa Japan. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 81: 185-188. http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/transactions/PDF/8119.pdf Google Scholar [97]
<>Trevor-Jones, A. 2008. Diagonally-banded Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus, with isopod parasites. 10.2 m. Photograph. http://atj.net.au/Dive200882012Lighthouse_Bo.html
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Three new attachment locations of the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, on the Oblique-striped Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Barrier Reef, Australia. iNaturalist #44931831, Research Quality Observations, 4 May (online) [486]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., L. Bunkley-Williams and W. G. Dyer. 1996. Metazoan parasites of some Okinawan coral reef fishes with a general comparison to the parasites of Caribbean coral reef fishes. Galaxea 13: 1-13. Google Scholar [195]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #483.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20171223
SPECIES: Sweetlips Isopod,[1] Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881[2]
DISTINCTIONS: Attachment position above and below the eye. Tail shield (pleotelson) long, flat, ovate, and much longer than wide, edges widest apart near the middle; balancing fins (uropods) extend just slightly beyond posterior end of pleotelson;[3] overall body more elongate and larger than many Anilocra spp.
DATE: 23 December 2017
LOCALITY: Toilet Bowl, near Onna Point, Okinawa, Japan
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 26°29’58.2” N, 127°50’30.5” E (26.4995, 127.8418)
PHOTOGRAPHER: Black Fin Grouper©
DEPTH: 18.3 m (60 ft)
HOST: Many-spotted Sweetlips, Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède, 1801

Table 1. Known Hosts and Localities of the Sweetlips Isopod
Fish Common Name[4] Locality Record New Source
Bigeye Great Barrier Reef (GBR) S -- Bruce, 1987
Oblique-banded Sweetlips[5] Swains Reef, GBR S -- Bruce, 1987
Oblique-banded Sweetlips Ribbon #10 Reef, GBR P -- This note
Ornate Jobfish New Caledonia S -- Justine et al., 2012
Painted Sweetlips Lizard Island, GBR O -- Bruce, 1987
Many-spotted Sweetlips[6] Okinawa(?) Ps -- Williams et al., 1996
Many-spotted Sweetlips Toilet Bowl, Okinawa P H,L This note
Slatey Sweetlips Krakatoa S H,L This note
GBR= Great Barrier Reef, H=Host, L=Locality, O=Observation, P=Photograph, S=Deposited specimen

IDENTIFICATION: While we were in Okinawa in 1985-1986, we received numerous reports of external isopods on the Many-spotted Sweetlips from scientists and divers, photographs, and two newspaper articles (Fig. B). We were unable to find and collect this species. Nor could we identify them from the photographs (Williams et al., 1996). The high quality of the Anonymous (2017) photographs allowed us to identify the Sweetlips Isopod and solve our frustration.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Anonymous (2017) suggested this isopod was Anilocra alloceraea Koelbel, 1878. This isopod’s body and pleotelson is not sufficiently narrow to be A. alloceraea (Bruce, 1987).
IMPORTANCE: Two New Island Records and two New Host records.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[7,8,10,11] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[7,9,10,12]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [7]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [8]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [9]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [10]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [11]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [12]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Anonymous. 2008. Diagonally-banded Sweetlips, Plectorhynchus lineatus, with isopod parasites. 10.2 m. Photograph. © 2008 ATJ. http://atj.net.au/Dive200882012Lighthouse_Bo.html
<>Anonymous. 2017. Spotted Sweetlips with parasite detail. Black Fin Grouper©. Photograph. https://www.flickr.com/photos/155839952@N07/40059368655
<>Bruce, N. L., 1987. Australian Pleopodias Richardson, 1910, and Anilocra Leach, 1818 (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes. Records of the Australian Museum 39: 85–130. https://media.australianmuseum.net.au/media/Uploads/Journals/17673/166_complete.pdf
<>Dyer, W. G., E. H. Williams, Jr., and L. B. Williams. 1988. Pseudopecoelus sesokoensis sp. n. (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) from the intestine of Plectorhynchus picus (Valenciennes) of Okinawa Japan. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 81: 185-188. http://www.il-st-acad-sci.org/transactions/PDF/8119.pdf Google Scholar [97]
<>Justine, J.-L., I. Beveridge, G. A. Boxshall, R. A. Bray, T. L. Miller, F. Moravec, J.-P. Trilles, and I. D. Whittington. 2012. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish. Aquatic Biosystems 8: 29 pp. JustineetalAquaticBiosystems2012-2.pdf
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1987. Three new species of Renocila (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae), external parasites of coral reef fishes from the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100: 417 432. [94]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. New hosts and locality records for the Sweetlips Isopod, Anilocra longicauda Schioedte and Meinert, 1881, in Krakatoa and Okinawa. iNaturalist #44830243, Research Quality Observations, 3 May (online) [484]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., L. Bunkley-Williams and W. G. Dyer. 1996. Metazoan parasites of some Okinawan coral reef fishes with a general comparison to the parasites of Caribbean coral reef fishes. Galaxea 13: 1-13. Google Scholar [195]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #484.
[3] Bruce (1987) found these did not extend past the posterior end of the pleotelson. This is only a minor difference.
[4]Bigeye, Priacanthus sp.; Many-spotted Sweetlips (Harlequin Sweetlips on FishBase[6]), Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède, 1801; Oblique-banded Sweetlips (Yellow-banded Sweetlips on FishBase[5]), Plectorhynchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758); Ornate Jobfish, Pritipomoidess argyrogrammicus (Valenciencienes1831); Painted Sweetlips, Diagramma pictum (Thunberg, 1792); Slatey Sweetlips, Diagramma labiosum Macleay, 1883 (1, 15 Sept 1984, 6°6’0.0” S, 105°25’58.8” [-6.1, 105.433]).

Photos / Sounds

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Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

NUMBER: 20170728
SPECIES: Rockbeauty Isopod,[1] Anilocra holacanthi Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981[2]
DISTINCTIONS: Found on Rock Beauties and on nothing else.
LOCALITY: off Marsh Harbor, Abaco. We found this isopod at Eleuthera, Cat Cay, Conception Island, Fowl Cay, Long Island, Bahamas (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981). Photo locality was not published (Riger, 2017).
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: somewhere off 26°32’28.96” N., 77°3’48.96” W (26.54, -77.06).
HOST: Host specific to Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch, 1795)
DATE: 28 July 2017
PHOTOGRAPH: by Melinda Riger.
ASSOCIATION: Having an adult female on both sides of the host is less common than having just one. This is an example of our Duplex Arrangement of fish isopods (Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1987) and is only possible because of our Micromale Life Cycle (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019).
IMPORTANCE: Identification of the isopod and New Island Record for Abaco, Bahamas.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[3,4,6,7] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[3,5,6,8]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [3]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [4]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [5]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [6]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [7]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [8]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Riger, M. 2017. Rock Beauty Bahamas reef fish (37). Rolling Harbor Abaco. https://rollingharbour.com/2017/07/28/rock-beauty-bahamas-reef-fish-37/
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1981. Nine new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) external parasites of West Indian coral reef fishes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94: 1005 1047. Google Scholar [41] also: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241572064_Nine_new_species_of_Anilocra_Crustacea_Isopoda_Cymothoidae_external_parasites_of_West_Indian_coral_reef_fishes
<>Williams, L. B. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1987. Three new species of Renocila (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae), external parasites of coral reef fishes from the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100: 417 432. [94]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. Identification of the Rockbeauty Isopod, Anilocra holacanthi Bunkley-Williams and Williams, 1981, and a New Island Record for Abaco, Bahamas. iNaturalist #44213534, Research Quality Observation, 28 April (online) [483]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #483.

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What

Aega psora

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

SPECIES: Salve Bug,[1] Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758)[2]
DISTINCTIONS: Stripe down midline of back (dorsal). Body elongate-oval with all parts of similar width. Large, rear-pointed, projections (coxal plates) from thorax (pereon). Tail shield (pleotelson) triangular in shape, as long as wide. Swimming fins (uropods) barely extend beyond end of pleotelson. Uropod margins are lined with hairs. Uroprod lobes oval, not broad, not terminally pointed.
NUMBER, SIZES, DEVELOPMENT: (1) 1, ~2.5 cm TL, adult (Fig. A); (2) 15+, 1-2 mm TL, juveniles.
HOST: Thorny Skate,[3] Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)
LOCALITY: In Alvin Canyon. Infected host in Figure A photographed at depth of 1010 m. Exact locality not stated in Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016).
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: around 39°52’48” N, 70°42’36” W (39.88, -70.71)
DISTRIBUTION: This isopod was described in the northern Northwest Atlantic and found there many times since. It has been reported at various localities almost around the northern hemisphere. We suspect it is a species complex.
LOCATION: (1) Isopod was attached mid-way on the body of a Spiny Skate, at the juncture of the left pectoral wing and the central disk. This species has been reported from various body and fin locations. (2) Juveniles were attached to both the wings and the central disk.
DAMAGE: Often found near wounds on fishes, but not clear if it is attracted to wounds, or causes them. This has been a long controversary about many fish-associated isopods.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Syscenus spp. differ by having much longer legs (pereopods) and antennae (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020b).
IDENTIFICATIONS: We disagree with the highly conservative view “species cannot be identified without collections” of Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016). Reasonably accurate identifications can be made from observations and photographs (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020).
PARASITES: As a bottom-feeding and bottom-living fish, this ray has many and varied parasites. However, its only known isopod associate[4] is the Salve Bug.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[5,6,8,9] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[5,7,8,10]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [5]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [6]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [7]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [8]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [9]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [10]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Nozères et al. 2010. Marine fishes from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence: A photo guide. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2866, with Appendix 4, 2011 update. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.663.1433&rep=rep1&type=pdf
<>Quattrini, A. M. and A. W. J. Demopoulos. 2016. Ectoparasitism on deep-sea fishes in the Western North Atlantic: In situ observations from ROV surveys. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5: 217-228. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213224416300268
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Identifying another deep-sea aegid of Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016) in the Western North Atlantic: The Salve Bug, Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). iNaturalist #44057208, Research Quality Observation, 27 April (online) [482][2]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Identifying the deep-sea aegid of Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016) in the Western North Atlantic: The Grenadier Isopod, Syscenus inflex Harger, 1880. iNaturalist #43924656, Research Quality Observation, 27 April (online) [481][2]
FOOTNOTES:
[1] “Salve Bug” is an old name. New England fishermen used them in folk medicine. The isopods were ground up and used in teas.
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #482.
[3]Common name “Starry Ray” in FishBase
[4]This isopod may not spend much time on a host and may be a minipredator. The status of many isopods associated with fishes is unclear.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

the past

Description

SPECIES: Grenadier Isopod,[1] Syscenus inflex Harger, 1880[2]
REDISCRIPTIONS: Brandt and Andres (2008) found Kensley’s (2004) redescription of the sympatric S. atlanticus Kononenko, 1988, inadequate to identify their specimens. Therefore, they formed another redescription.
NUMBER, SIZES, DEVELOPMENT: 5, ~2-3 cm TL. Only one specimen per host has been observed. Adults are blind. This could indicate a Micromale Life Cycle (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019).
HOST: Marlin-spike Grenadier, Nezumia bairdii (Goode and Bean, 1877). Ross et al. (2001) suggested this fish was the preferred host for this isopod in the Western North Atlantic (Table 1).
LOCALITY: Western North Atlantic continental slope. Infected host in Figure A photographed at depth of 780 m, on an open slope. Exact locality not stated in Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016).
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: Approximately 39°50’24” N, 70°8’24” W (39.84, -70.14)

Table 1: Syscenus inflex in Nezumia spp. in the Western North Atlantic[3]
Nezumia spp. Observed Museum Specimens % Fish
Fish Isopods Fish Scars
N. bairdii 57 5 8.8
N. bairdii 1236 205 16.6[4]
N. aequatis 660 17 2.6[4]
N. sclerorhynchus 86 1 1.2[4]
N. suilla 7[5] 1 14.6[4,5]
[3]from Ross et al. (2001) and Kensley (2004)
[4]Isopods incapacitate hosts; therefore, scars are over-represented in mechanical samples
[5]Sample size too small to be relevant

LOCATION: Dorsal midline immediately behind the dorsal fin (Fig. A). Ross (2001) suggested this isopod was site specific to this location. They also noted it formed attachment scars (Fig. B) in this location.
ASSOCIATION: Ross et al. (2001) found 1 isopod per host on Marlin-spike Grenadiers. They found it was an obligate associate and parasite.
BEHAVIOR: This isopod leaves the host when collected (Fig. C), but their scars (Fig. B) can be found on museum specimens.
PHOTOGRAPHS: Ross et al. (2001: Fig. 1a) published the first photographs of this isopod on the host (35°29.9’N, 74°47.0’W, 722 m, our Fig. D). Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016: Fig. 2E) published a picture (our Fig. A) of an “aegid” on this host. The Grenadier Isopod is an aegid. Figures B and C are from Nozères et al. (2010).
SIMILAR SPECIES: Syscenus atlanticus, occurs in the same areas (sympatric) as the Grenadier Isopod. Its tail plate (pleotelson) is wider than long and oval-shaped, instead of longer than wide and shield-shaped. Its pleon (~abdomen) is narrower than its pereon (~thorax) and tapers anteriorly, instead of as wide as its pereon and not tapering. It is less common, probably less host associated, and does not seem to form scars.
IDENTIFICATIONS: We disagree with the highly conservative view “species cannot be identified without collections” of Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016). Reasonably accurate identifications can be made from observations and photographs (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020).
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[5,6,8,9] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[5,7,8,10]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [5]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [6]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [7]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [8]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [9]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [10]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Brandt, A. and H. G. Andres. 2008. Description of Aega sarsae sp. nov. and redescription of Syscenus atlanticus Kononenko, 1988 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Aegidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Marine Biology Research 4: 61-75.
<>Kensley, B. 2004. Redescription and distribution of two species of Syscenus (Crustacea, Isopoda, Aegidae) in the North Atlantic. Sarsia 89: 160-174. https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/11055/iz_2004_Kensley_Redescription_and_distribution_of_two_species_of_Syscenus_infelix.pdf
<>Nozères et al. 2010. Marine fishes from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence: A photo guide. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2866, with Appendix 4, 2011 update. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.663.1433&rep=rep1&type=pdf
<>Quattrini, A. M. and A. W. J. Demopoulos. 2016. Ectoparasitism on deep-sea fishes in the Western North Atlantic: In situ observations from ROV surveys. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5: 217-228. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213224416300268
<>Ross, S. W., K. J. Sulak, and T. A. Munroe. 2001. Association of Syscenus infelix (Crustacea: Isopoda: Aegidae) with benthopelagic rattail fishes, Nezumia spp. (Macrouridae), along the western North Atlantic continental slope. Marine Biology 138: 595–602. https://www.academia.edu/14476609/Association_of_Syscenus_infelix_Crustacea_Isopoda_Aegidae_with_benthopelagic_rattail_fishes_Nezumia_spp._Macrouridae_along_the_western_North_Atlantic_continental_slope
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. Identifying the deep-sea aegid of Quattrini and Demopoulos (2016) in the Western North Atlantic: The Grenadier Isopod, Syscenus inflex Harger, 1880. iNaturalist #43924656, Research Quality Observation, 27 April (online) [481]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Suggested New Common Name
[2]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #481.
[3]Isopods incapacitate hosts; therefore, they are over-represented in mechanical samples.
[4]Sample size too small to be relevant

Photos / Sounds

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Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 15, 2011

Description

NUMBER: 20110615
STATION NUMBER: Station_11_MC-118\Water_Column_11_MC_Upcast
SPECIES: Lymphocyctis Disease Virus (LCDV)
OTHER NAMES: Lymphocyctivirus, Lymphocystis
DISTINCTIONS: Sign of infection often begins as small, white blob, or blobs, on the skin, fins, or gills. Often irregularly oval, or cauliflower shaped, with pedunculate base (Fig. A) (Bunkley-Williams et al., 1996, 2002; Williams et al., 1984).
SIZE: 11.9 mm (4.7 in, estimated)
DATE, TIME: 15 June 2011, 11:37-11:47 am
FIRST SEEN: 11:36, 62 m (203.4 ft, ibid.)
OBSERVATION DEPTHS, TIMES: 58.1 to 131.3 m (190.6-430.8 ft), 11:37-11:47 am (ibid.)
BOTTOM DEPTH: 942 m (3090.6 ft, ibid.)
LOCATION: on top of head between eyes
PHOTOGRAPHS: by a Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV) in northern Gulf of Mexico (ibid.).
BEHAVIOR: LCDV growths may simply fall off in days or weeks doing little lasting damage. Growths on fins or around gills may modify the behavior of the host. Changes in behaviors often attracts predators.
LOCALITY: 67.6 km (42 mi) ESE of Port Eads, Louisiana, USA, Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico
DISTRIBUTION: LCDV occurs in freshwater and marine fishes globally. We are unaware of previously reported Lymphocystis Disease in deep sea fishes; however, LCVD has been recovered from deep sea sediments (Bäckström et al., 2019). These were very old, “fossil”[2], and their depth of origin could not be determined.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 28°50’64.64” N, 88°29’22.5594 W (28.8474, -88.4896) (Benfield et al., 2013)
SIMILAR SPECIES: LCDV lesions are wart-like growths usually white in color and often appearing insubstantial and/or even just hanging on the fish. Other, externally expressed fish growths and tumors appear more substantial, larger, more complex, and often have more color (e.g., Grizzle and Williams, 1983: Williams et al., 2000). Quite often, LCDV growths occur in multiples of isolated growths. However, our identification is only an educate guess, we cannot positively identify these growths without collecting and sectioning them.
IMPORTANCE: First report of Lymphocysitivirus Disease (LCVD) in the deepsea.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[4,5,7,8] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[4,6,7,9]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [4]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [5]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [6]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [7]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [8]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [9]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Anonymous. 2020. How underwater robots shine the light on sharks. https://www.shell.com/inside-energy/secrets-of-the-deep.html
<>Bäckström, D., N. Yutin, S. L. Jørgensen, J. Dharamshi, F. Homa, K. Zaremba-Niedwiedzka, A. Spang, Y. I. Wolf, E. V. Koonin, and T. J. G. Ettema. 2019. Virus genomes from deep sea sediments expand the ocean megavirome and support independent origins of viral gigantism. Evolution and Ecological Science 10: 1-23. mBio 10:e02497-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio .02497-18.
<>Bunkley-Williams, L., J. M. Grizzle and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1996. First report of lymphocystis in Family Gerreidae: Caitipa Mojarras Diapterus rhombeus collected from La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 8: 176-179. http://cf.acesag.auburn.edu/fisheries/publications/index.cfm Google Scholar [187]
<>Bunkley-Williams, L., E. H. Williams, Jr. and R. P. Phelps. 2002. Does lymphocystis occur in Pacora, Plagioscion surinamensis (Sciaenidae), from Colombia? Acta Tropica 82: 7-9. http://cf.acesag.auburn.edu/fisheries/publications/index.cfm Google Scholar [283]
<>Grizzle, J. and E. H. Williams, Jr. 1983. Dermal fibroma in a Redband Parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes). Journal of Fish Diseases 6: 205 209. [www.aol.gov/general/lib/CREWS/Cleo/St.%20Croix/salt_river159.pdf] Google Scholar+ [55]
<>Hossain, M. and M.-J. Oh. 2011. Histopathology of marine and freshwater fish Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV). Sains Malaysiana 40: 1049-1052.
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Possibly the first report of Lymphocysitivirus Disease (LCVD) in a deepsea fish, Great Oarfish, Regalecus glesne Ascnius, 1772, off Veracruz, Mexico. iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observation, 22 April (online) [480]
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Identifying the most famous Fish Isopod on Earth, Mako Isopod, Anilocra elviae Winfield et al., 2002, and demonstrating our Prey-Predator Life Cycle from Great Oarfish, Regalecus glesne Ascnius, 1772, to Shortfin Mako (shark), Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, off Veracruz, Mexico. iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observation, 22 April (online) [479]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., L. B. Williams, and J. M. Grizzle. 1984. Lymphocystis from West Indian marine fishes. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 20: 51 52. [http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/20/1/51.pdf; http://cf.acesag.auburn.edu/fisheries/ publications/index.cfm] [65]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr., T. G. Rand and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2000. Neurofibromas in Gray Snappers, Lutjanus griseus, from Bermuda and the unusual distribution of nerve sheath tumors in snappers at the northern extremes of West Indian waters. Caribbean Journal of Science 36: 344-346. http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/Vol36b/36_344_346.pdf [272]
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #480.
[2]The term “Fossil” was completely misused to mean non-infective. The standard mineral replacement definition was not intended. Ironically, a virus is already a rock.

Photos / Sounds

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

June 15, 2011

Description

NUMBER: 20110615
STATION NUMBER: Station_11_MC-118\Water_Column_11_MC_Upcast [1]
SPECIES: Mako Isopod,[2] Anilocra elviae Winfield et al., 2002[3]
DISTINCTIONS: The isopod is not very clear in the photographs (Figs. A-C), but the size and the eyes touching (Fig. A) are diagnostic of the male of the Mako Isopod. Other Anilocra spp. do not have eyes that touch.
SIZE, DEVELOPMENT: ~32 mm TL (1.2 in, estimated), male (by size)
DATE, TIME: 15 August 2011, 11:36-11:47 am (Benfield et al., 2013)
FIRST SEEN: 11:36, 62 m (203.4 ft, ibid.)
OBSERVATION DEPTHS: 58.1 to 131.3 m (190.6-430.8 ft), 11:37-11:47 am (ibid.)
BOTTOM DEPTH: 942 m (3090.6 ft, ibid.)
LOCATION: Halfway along anterior dorsal fin rays.
PHOTOGRAPHS: by a Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV) in northern Gulf of Mexico (ibid.).
BEHAVIOR: The Male Isopod was violently bounced around, but was not dislodged.[1]
FINAL (DEFINITIVE) HOST: The Mako Isopod attaches to the claspers of the Shortfin Mako (shark), Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 (Winfield et al., 2002).
LOCALITY: 67.6 km (42 mi) ESE of Port Eads, Louisiana, USA, Mississippi Canyon, Gulf of Mexico
DISTRIBUTION: Northeast (Benfield et al., 2013) and southwest (19°12’ N, 95°39’ W, 35 m depth, June 1999, Winfield et al., 2002) Gulf of Mexico.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 28°50’64.64” N, 88°29’22.5594 W (28.8474, -88.4896) (Benfield et al., 2013)
SIMILAR SPECIES: Anilocra gigantea (Herklots, 1870) occurs on deepsea fishes, but is larger and only known from the Pacific (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2003). The Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910, occurs in the Gulf of Mexico, but only in continental coastal shallows (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2020c).
LIFE CYCLE: The Shortfin Mako preys upon Great Oarfish (Kuris et al., 2015). The Mako Isopod probably passes on the Great Oarfish to the Mako Shark as part of a Prey-Predator Life Cycle (Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 2019). The Great Oarfish is also an intermediate host for tapeworms Clistobothrium montaukensis Ruhnke, 1993 and Clistobothrium sp. (Kuris et al., 2015), which mature in the gut of the Shortfin Mako.
IMPORTANCE: Third specimen of this isopod ever seen, and part of its life cycle documented.
OBSCURE; NOT: As the third Mako Isopod ever seen, we could consider it obscure. However, as the most widely watched live Fish Isopod in the history of life on Earth, it is anything but. Many web sites online contain parts of Video #5 (e.g., Anonymous, 2013).[1] These sites have been watched multiple millions of times.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[4,5,7,8] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[4,6,7,9]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [4]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [5]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [6]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [7]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [8]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [9]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Anonymous. 2013. Video of the Oarfish, Regalecus glesne
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yIWfCAC5y0[1]
<>Benfield, M. C., S. Cook, S. Sharuga, and M. M. Valentine. 2013. Five in situ observations of live oarfish Regalecus glesne (Regalecidae) by remotely operated vehicles in the oceanic waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish Biology 83: 28-38.[1]
<> Kuris, A. M., A. G. Jaramillo, J. P. McLaughlin, S. B. Weinstein, A. E. Garcia-Vedrenne, G. O. Poinar, Jr., M. Pickering, M. L. Steinauer, M. Espinoza, J. E. Ashford, and G. L. P. Dunn.
2015. Monsters of the sea serpent: Parasites of an oarfish, Regalecus russellii. Journal of Parasitology 101: 41-44. http://parasitology.msi.ucsb.edu/sites/parasitology.msi.ucsb.edu/files/docs/publications/Kuris%20etal2015JP_Oarfish.pdf
<>Quattrini, A. M. and A. W. J. Demopoulos. 2016. Ectoparasitism on deep-sea fishes in the Western North Atlantic: In situ observations from ROV surveys. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5: 217-228. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213224416300268
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2003. New records of fish-parasitic isopods (Cymothoidae) in the Eastern Pacific (Galápagos Islands and Costa Rica). Noticias de Galápagos 62: 21-23. Google Scholar [also www.darwinfoundation.org/downloads/ Noticias_de_Galapagos_62.pdf] [295]
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2019. Life cycle and life history strategies of parasitic crustacea. Chapter 5 and Pages 179-266 In: N. J. Smit, N. L. Bruce, and K. A. Hadfield (Eds.). Parasitic Crustacea: State of knowledge and future trends. Zoological Monographs 3, Springer Nature Switzerland, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17385-2 [417]
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020a. Identifying the most famous Fish Isopod on Earth, Mako Isopod, Anilocra elviae Winfield et al., 2002, and demonstrating our Prey-Predator Life Cycle from Great Oarfish, Regalecus glesne Ascnius, 1772, to Shortfin Mako (shark), Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, in the northern Gulf of Mexico. iNaturalist #43183804, Research Quality Observation, 23 April (online) [479]
<> Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020b. Possibly the first report of Lymphocysivirus Disease (LCVD) in a Deepsea Fish, Great Oarfish, Regalecus glesne Ascnius, 1772, in the northern Gulf of Mexico. iNaturalist #???, Research Quality Observation, 24 April (online) [480]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020c. New State Locality Record for the Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910, in the Fish River, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #42679710, 14 April (online) [478]
<>Winfield, I., F. Alvarez, and M. Ortiz. 2002. A new species of Anilocra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae), ectoparasite on the Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115: 148-152.
FOOTNOTES:
[1]Video #5 (Benfield et al., 2013)
[2]Suggested New Common Name
[3]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. The entire, original text is in our reprint #479.

Photos / Sounds

What

Spotted Gar Lepisosteus oculatus

Observer

ernesthwilliams

Date

April 22, 2015

Description

NUMBER: 20150422
SPECIES: Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, 1864[1]
LOCALITY: off Dr. Wallace’s boat dock in the Fish River, Balwin County, Alabama.
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE: 30°26’7.80” N, 87°48’46.08 W (30.4355, -87.8128)
DATE: 22 April 2015
PARASITE: Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910 (iNaturalist #42679710, Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1994, 1999, 2020) (Fig. B)
PHOTOGRAPHS: Figure A by LBW; Figure B by Dr. Richard K. Wallace.
COMMENTS: We visited the Wallaces and collected 13 Spotted Gars 23 April 2015. Figure A is EHW with Spotted Gar on the Wallaces’ dock.
IMPORTANCE: None. This fish is becoming scarce in the northern USA but is still common in the south.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: RKW and Dr. Ronald P. Phelps assisted with the collections.
OBSERVERS: Dr. Ernest H. Williams, Jr.,[2,3,5,6] and Dr. Lucy Bunkley-Williams[2,4,5,7]
AFILIATIONS, ADDRESSES: [2]Extraordinary Professors, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa; Adjunct Professors, Research Field Station, Florida Gulf Coast University, 5164 Bonita Beach Road, Bonita Springs, FL 34134; [3]Dept. Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico (retired); [4]Dept. Biology, UPR (retired); [5]920 St. Andrews Blvd, Naples, FL 34113-8943; [6]e-mail ermest.williams1@upr.edu; cell 239-227-3645, ORCID 0000-0003-0913-3013; [7]Cell 787-467-2179, e-mail lucy.williams1@upr.edu, ORCID 0000-0003-1390-911x.
REFERENCES:
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1994. Four cases of unusual crustacean-fish associations and comments on parasitic processes. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6: 202-208. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241718637_Four_Cases_of_Unusual_Crustacean-Fish_Associations_and_Comments_on_Parasitic_Processes [156]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 1999. Order Isopoda. Pages 310, 325-331, 353, 359-360, 375, 377, 379, 383-385, 396, 402, 404-408 In: G. L. Hoffman (Ed.) Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA, 539 pp. [244]
<>Williams, E. H., Jr. and L. Bunkley-Williams. 2020. New State Locality Record for the Gar Isopod, Anilocra acuta Richardson, 1910, in the Fish River, Alabama. iNaturalist, Research Quality Report #42679710, 14 April (online) [478][1]
[1]Identification was peer-reviewed, text edited and usually condensed. No reprint of this report has been saved or numbered in our collection.

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